Drome Digest

Dengue Fever

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Dengue fever has become a global health concern, affecting millions of people around the world. This blog post aims to provide knowledge about symptoms and treatment of dengue fever.

Causative Organism

  • Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a Flavivirus called dengue virus which is spread by female mosquitoes primarily of the Aedes aegypti species and to a lesser extent Aedes albopictus.
  • This disease is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas around the world, especially in urban and semi-urban settings.


Dengue fever typically starts 4 to 7 days after the mosquito bite and usually lasts for 3 to 10 days. Symptoms may include:

  • High fever
  • Severe headache
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Severe joint and muscle pain
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Skin rash
  • Mild bleeding (such as nosebleed, gum bleeding, or easy bruising)


In the early stages of the disease, dengue can be diagnosed by antigen detection. Later in the disease course, antibody test can be used to diagnose Dengue.

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome

In some cases, dengue fever can develop into a more severe form known as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Symptoms include :

  • Severe abdominal pain
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Rapid breathing
  • Bleeding gums
  • Fatigue
  • Blood in vomit

The next stage is of Dengue Shock Syndrome,which can cause a massive drop in blood pressure, leading to shock.These forms of the disease can be life-threatening and need immediate medical attention.

Prevention of Dengue Fever*

The National Vector Borne Diseases Control Program(NVBDCP) is an umbrella program for prevention and control of vector borne diseases viz. Malaria, Japanese Encephalitis (JE), Dengue, Chikungunya, Kala-azar and Lymphatic Filariasis.The strategies for prevention of Dengue
Environmental manipulation:

  • Draining the water: Proper drainage system/soak pits should be constructed to avoid water stagnation.
  • Covering water-storage containers: The water containers like water jars/pots, metal drums and smaller containers storing fresh water or rainwater should be covered with tightly fitting lids or screens.
  • Cleaning flowerpots/vases: Water in flower vases should be removed and discarded weekly and vases should be scrubbed and cleaned before reuse.
  • Cleaning incidental water collections: Water and air coolers, condensation collection pans under refrigerators, and air conditioners should be regularly checked, water to be drained and cleaned.
  • Managing construction sites and roof tops: Periodic check of roof tops of the buildings especially during monsoon season need to be done.
  • Proper Storage: Household and garden utensils (buckets, bowls and watering devices) should be kept upside down to prevent accumulation of rain water.

Personal Protection: Protective clothing(long sleeve shirts and trousers), mosquito nets and repellents can be used as personal protection measures. Mosquito repellents, electric liquid vaporizers may be used to prevent mosquito bite.

Vector Control: The Aedes mosquito can be controlled through source reduction and recurrent antilarval measures. Adult mosquitoes can be controlled by Space Spray/fogging of Pyrethrum and Malathion.

Management of Dengue Fever:*

  • Bedrest is advisable during acute phase
  • Use cold sponging to keep temperature below 38.5F
  • Antipyretics may be used to lower body temperature
  • Oral fluid and electrolyte therapy can be used for patients with excessive sweating and vomiting.


Dengue fever is a severe, mosquito-borne disease that presents a significant health threat globally.It is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions.However increasing global travel can spread Dengue in newer regions. Understanding the disease, recognizing its symptoms and taking preventative measures can help keep us protected from this disease.



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